CHAPTER- 5 1)Define Macromolecules, monomers and polymers 2) List all the pol

CHAPTER- 5
1)Define:  Macromolecules,  monomers and polymers
2) List all the polymers studied in ch 5
3)  Differentiate between hydrolysis and dehydration reactions
4)  Explain how polymers are formed  and broken down using above mentioned reactions.
5)  What are carbohydrate monomers known as?
6)  Classify of monosaccharides based on the location of carbonyl group 
7)  Classify  monosaccharides based on the number of carbon atoms in the carbon skeleton.
8)  What do cells use carbohydrates primarily for?
9)  Explain what a glycosidic  linkage is?
10) How are disaccharides formed?
11)  Give  3 examples of disaccharides  studied in class  (sucrose, lactose, maltose) and list what monosaccharides each one is made up of.
12)  How are the polysaccharides:  Starch, glycogen, Cellulose, chitin different from each other?
Where is each of these polysaccharides found?
What is the use of each polysaccharide mentioned above in biological cells?
13) Why does cellulose in human food pass through as insoluble fiber?
14) Why are lipids hydrophobic? 
15) What are the three kinds of biologically important lipids?
16) Describe the structure of triglycerides.
17)  Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids
18)  Which of the above mentioned fatty acids is liquid at room temperature and why?
19)  What are trans fats?
20)  What is hydrogenation?
21)  What is the major function of fats in human cells?
22) Describe the structure of phospholipids
23) What happens to phospholipids when added to water and why?
24) Describe the structure of steroids. Give an example
25) What are the monomers of proteins called?
26) List the functions of proteins in living cells
27) Define enzymes
28) What is the difference between a protein and a polypeptide?
29) Describe the structure of an amino acid.
30)  What is the same in all 20 amino acids? What is different between different amino acids?
31)  What is a peptide bond
32)  Describe  the following protein structure
Primary, secondary, tertiary and quartarnary
33) What dictates the primary structure of the protein? What bonds are responsible for this structure?
34) What kinds of bonds are responsible for the secondary structure of the protein?
35) What kinds of bonds are responsible for the tertiary structure of the protein?
Be familiar with the diagrams for primary, secondary and tertiary structures of proteins.
36)  Alpha helix and beta pleated are examples of what protein structure?
37)  Globular and fibrous are examples of what protein structure?
38)  What does the term “denatured” mean with respect to a protein?
39)  How do temperature conditions higher or lower than optimal  affect a proteins function and why?
40)  How do pH conditions higher or lower than optimal  affect a proteins function and why?
42)  What are the 2 kinds of nucleic acids?
43)  What are monomers of DNA and RNA called?
44)  What does a nucleotide consist of?
45)  How is a DNA nucleotide different from an RNA nucleotide?
46)  List the 2 families of nitrogenous bases. How they are different from each other?
47)  Name the 3 pyrimidines and 2 purines.
48)  Describe in detail the structure of DNA
49)  Why are the 2 strands of DNA said to be antiparallel?
50)   The nitrogenous bases in DNA pair up by _________________ bonds.
51)  On DNA; Adenine always pairs up with ___________________ , and guanine always pairs up with _____________.
56)  What is gene?
57)  Given a piece of the strand of DNA build its complimentary strand
5’-TATTCGACC-3’
CHAPTER 6
Why do cells need microscopes to be visualized?
Define the following terms with respect to microscope
Magnification,  Resolution, Contrast
Name the 2 kinds of electron microscopes 
Which of the two electron microscopes would you use to visualize the surface of objects?
Which electron microscope would you use to view the internal ultrastructure? 
Given the choice of  compound light microscope, TEM, SEM and unaided eye, which one  should be used to view each of the following
Surface structure of ribosomes
Cross section of cilia
Nucleus of an animal cell
Frog egg
A kidney cell
List the similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
List the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and give examples of each kind of cell.
What is the plasma membrane primarily made up of?
Know the diagram of the bilayer structure of the plasma membrane very well
Smaller cells have a __________________ surface area relative to volume.
Describe the structure and function of each of the following 
Nucleus
Endoplasmic reticulum  (rough and smooth)
Ribosomes  (attached and free)
Golgi apparatus
Plasma membrane
Cell wall
Lysosomes
Vacuoles
Mitochondria
Chloroplast
Peroxisomes
List the components of the endomembrane system.
How do the components of the endomembrane system communicate with each other?
Differentiate between  smooth and rough ER
Differentiate between Free ribosomes and attached ribosomes.
The protein hormone glucagon is made in specialized cells of the pancreas and secreted into the blood stream.  List all the organelles/particles  involved in this process in the correct order.
How is each of the following process carried out by the cell 
Break down of macromolecules like lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids
Digestion of food particles engulfed by protisits like amoeba
Degradation of bacteria engulfed by WBC’s
Degradation of a damaged mitochondrion or chloroplast
Removal of the tissue between the fingers of a webbed hand of a human fetus
Removal of a toxic byproduct like hydrogen per oxide.
Detoxification of drugs like sedatives and many poisons.
Where in the cell other than the nucleus can DNA be found?
What is the cause of Tay-Sachs disease 
What is the cause of Pompei’s disease?
Name the pigment found in chloroplasts
What is the cytoskeleton made up of?
Differentiate between the 3 main components of the cytoskeleton (microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules)based on their structure.
List the main functions of  the 3 main components of the cytoskeleton (microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules)
What is the function of the ECM?
Name the 4 types of intercellular junctions and describe the function of each.
CHAPTER 7
Why is the plasma membrane said to be selectively permeable?
What are the main components of the plasma membrane?
Describe the fluid mosaic model for the structure of the plasma membrane.
Why are phospholipids said to be amphipathic?
Why are the phospholipids in the plasma membrane in form of a bilayer?
How does the membrane maintain its fluidity over a wide temperature range?
How are peripheral proteins different from integral proteins.
What are the major functions of membrane proteins?
What purpose do glycolipids and glycoproteins in cell membranes of animal cells serve? 
What molecules is the plasma membrane freely permeable to?
Which molecules cannot cross through the membrane easily?
How do hydrophilic substances pass across the plasma membrane?
What are aquaporins?
How do carrier proteins work?
What is the difference between active transport and passive transport?
Define:    diffusion,   Dynamic equilibrium.
What is osmosis and what dictates the movement of water across a membrane by osmosis?
Define the terms: Tonicity, Isotonic solution, hypotonic solution and hypertonic solution.
Describe what happens to plant and animal cells when placed in 
Isotonic solution
Hypotonic solution
Hypertonic solution
Describe the process of facilitated diffusion
Describe active transport using the sodium-potassium pump as an example.
The diffusion of ions is driven by  __________________  gradient.
What does the term electrochemical gradient mean?
What is cotransport?
How is transport of bulky molecules across the cell membrane accomplished?
Distinguish between exocytosis and endocytosis
Describe the 3 types of endocytosis 
Bacteria being engulfed by WBC’s and  amoeba engulfing food are examples of what kind of transport?
LDL molecules being  removed from blood and taken up into cells is an example of what kind of transport?
CHAPTER 8
Define the term:  Metabolism, Energy
Distinguish between catabolic pathways and anabolic pathways. Give an example of each
Differentiate between Kinetic energy and potential energy
Heat (thermal energy) is an example of _________________ energy.
What kind of energy is chemical energy?
How is a closed system different from an open system?
Are organisms a closed or an open system?  Why?
State the first and second law of thermodynamics
Energy flows into an ecosystem in form of _____________________ and exits in form of ____________.
What does the term spontaneous process mean?
Define the term:  Free energy.
Differentiate between exergonic and endergonic reactions
What are the main kinds of cellular work?
What is a molecule of ATP made up of?
How does ATP power cellular work?
What is energy coupling and how does a cell use it?
How is ATP regenerated?
Define:  A Catalyst, An  enzyme, Activation energy (EA)
How do enzymes affect  Activation energy (EA)
Explain the terms: Substrate, active site, enzyme-substrate complex
How can the active site lower Activation energy (EA)
How do temperature and pH affect enzyme activity?
Do enzymes change the free energy of the reaction they speed up?
Explain the terms cofactor and coenzyme. 
What do enzyme inhibitors do?
Differentiate between competitive and non-competitive inhibitors.
Explain the term allosteric regulation?
How does Cooperativity work?

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